Understanding Higher Education and Income

Can disadvantaged children learn?

Birth Origins and FP Choice   http://www.unmc.edu/Community/ruralmeded/birth_origins_and_fp_choice.htm  review of the path to family medicine, the specialty that distributes but also mush have lower socioeconomic students to survive and thrive.

Understanding the role of college health professional advisors in controlling the flow of lower income and lower scoring students, the ones who chose FP and distribute where needed  (several links)  http://www.unmc.edu/Community/ruralmeded/model/preprof/hlthadv.htm

Standardized Testing

The national dependence upon standardized testing represents a problem for those who start with lower income or different origins. 
 http://www.fairtest.org   web site documentation of problems with standardized tests at all levels also
Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering at  http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf99338/frames.htm  or http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf99338/start.htm

From elementary school teachers in Nebraska - Standardized tests in elementary school noted to have rural vs urban bias, had to change test agency to get evaluations, please email at rbowman@unmc.edu if you have more examples

Gifted program in Urban area - parent notes now that tests in the second grade determine participation in gifted programs.    When you start to see where we have gone, there are large variations by ethnicity and income that are greater and greater at the earliest levels. Those who have more income, more stay at home moms, those who read to their kids, gain an advantage that may not ever diminish compared to those with lower income and URM less likely to do so

Changes in Population and Education - A Must Read!

As America Becomes More Diverse: The Impact of State Higher Education Inequality 
From Business Week
Amherst Admits Rich and Poor Boosting socioeconomic diversity is already a front-burner issue
on the campuses of elite colleges. Everyone from Harvard President Lawrence H. Summers to 
William G. Bowen, ex-president of Princeton University, is grappling with a deeply troubling 
fact of American life: that 30 years of inequality have all but shut off top colleges to the poor.

Stephen Rose, Century Foundation - Top 146 colleges, 
74% of children from the top income quartile 
and only 3% from the bottom. 

Rural vs Urban


Rural Plus Minority and Pop Changes


Distribution of Education Funding - Funding Gaps

Public education is financed by property taxes but rural and inner city with less property value    Carey, Keith   Funding Gap 2004 by Keith Carey, The Education Trust, accessed at  http://www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/30B3C1B3-3DA6-4809-AFB9-2DAACF11CF88/0/funding2004.pdf

FP choice also related to education funding distribution by my research

Deception in Education Outcome Reporting

Examples from Texas and California. Data from NCES tends to overcount those with GED and alternative graduation and undercounts those lost over the years. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_baeo.htm#11

Bias toward Higher Education

See state reports that bias toward gifted and higher education http://measuringup.highereducation.org/compare_states.cfm

Broader education, more emphasis on lower levels, and greater high school graduation is important for physician distribution and also for service orientated professionals.

Teacher Quality, Retention, Just Like Rural Doc Retention


Teacher quality the key http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/11/87/1187.htm#WhereData

What leaders, governors need to know http://www.ecs.org/ecsmain.asp?page=/html/educationIssues/ECSStateNotes.asp


College Funding and Lower Income Students

College Funding and Reductions in Lower Income students This national report outlines the challenges that lower income students have faced in recent years with some states suffering more than others:

Affordability of Postsecondary Education: Equity and Adequacy Across the 50 States http://www.americanprogress.org/atf/cf/%7BE9245FE4-9A2B-43C7-A521-5D6FF2E06E03%7D/UNEQUALFA.PDF

 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of State Non-Needs Merit-Based Scholarship Programs http://www.ashe.ws/fellowship/summary_Farrell.pdf

The Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) is headquartered at the Michigan State University http://www.ashe.ws/conf04/papdep04.asp this is a link for recent fellowship papers

Linking Diversity to Institutional Mission - a 2004 update of diversity in ethnicity and income levels http://www.ashe.ws/paperdepot/2004%20a02%20aldousbergerson%20miller%20linking%20diversity%20to%20institutional%20mission.pdf

Admissions & Recruitment Policies of Underrepresented Student Populations at Texas A&M University: A Bourdieudian Analysis by Brent R. Petersen http://www.ashe.ws/paperdepot/2004%20d05%20petersen%20institutional%20recruitment%20and%20admission%20policies.pdf

Inside, Outside, Upside-down? Probing the Linkages among Accountability Pressures, State Government, and Higher Education Funding and Performance Darwin D. Hendel  Sarah A. Bunton  Kelly R. Risbey  Leonard S. Goldfine  University of Minnesota       As states fund education less and less... http://www.ashe.ws/paperdepot/2004%20e09%20risbey%20bunton%20hendel%20goldfine%20inside%20outside%20upside%20down.pdf

Merit Scholarships and Incentives for Academic Performance Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Portland, OR November, 2003 Donald E. Heller  Kimberly R. Rogers http://www.ashe.ws/paperdepot/2003heller.pdf

Policies of Collecting Lower Income or Disadvantaged Students are Bad

New Evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The Complex Effects of School Racial Composition on Achievement Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, and Steven G. Rivkin   http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/pubs/dp128404.pdf   study based in Texas with detailed student data regarding black, white, hispanic. Why academic performance may suffer in certain settings for students that are the least likely to continue toward higher education.   This quantitative study similar to qualitative study in British Medical Journal regarding "Not a University Type"

School Climate and School Performance Brookover http://www.jstor.org/cgi-bin/jstor/viewitem/00028312/ap040059/04a00100/0?frame=noframe&dpi=3&userID=89c584c8@unl.edu/01cc9933960050b2e85&backcontext=page

LOSING OUR FUTURE:How Minority Youth are Being Left Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis 
Alternative education also is bad for kids, for their self image, for their education, and for their eventual careers. Don't let schools isolate your child from a good education.

High school graduates state by state 2001 http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410934_WhoGraduates.pdf

Strong community colleges, Breadth => depth of Education, More than just gifted


Underserved - Overview and Models

Physician Workforce Studies


Australia appears to have an advantage for lower income students - It appears to have a built in method of recovering higher education costs rather than depending upon state and federal governments to keep increasing support on an annual basis. These are methods of college finance that can boost levels of lower income students   Rasmussen CJ  Addressing the Continued Socioeconomic Gap in Higher Education: Insights from Low-Income Students In Australian Universities http://www.ashe.ws/paperdepot/2002Rasmussen-Addrs.pdf

There are extensive debates in Australia and the UK regarding the various changes in the HECS program and overall changes in access to college and higher education based on socioeconomic levels, from http://www.derekwyattmp.co.uk/pages/news_item.asp?i_PageID=11645

1. ‘Empty Promises : The Myth of College Access in America’ – A Report of the
Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, June 2002. http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/acsfa/emptypromises.pdf
See also: ‘Access Denied: Restoring the Nation’s Commitment to Equal
Educational Opportunity’, by the same body, February, 2001. http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/acsfa/access_denied.pdf
2. See: ‘What Colleges Contribute; Institutional aid to full-time undergraduates
attending four year colleges and universities’, The U.S. Dept of Education.
3. ‘Family income and participation in post-secondary education,’ by Miles Corak,
Garth Lipps and John Zhao, Statistics Canada, October, 2003.
4. ‘Effects of rising tuition fees on medical school class composition and financial
outlook’. Jeff C Kwong, Irfan A Dhalla, David L Streiner, Ralph E. Baddour,
Andrea E Waddell, Ian L Johnson. The Canadian Medical Association, 2002. http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/abstract/166/8/1023
5. For details, see the Australian government website: www.hecs.gov.au 
6. ‘Higher education funding; international comparisons,’ DFES, December, 2003.
7. ‘Higher Education – report for the 2004 to 2006 Triennium’, Australia’s
Department of Education, Science and Training, December, 2003.
8. ‘HECS and opportunities in higher education,’ as above, August, 2003.
9. ‘National Audit Office, Widening Participation in Higher Education in England’.
Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General : HC 485. 18th January, 2002.
10. Student Living Report 2004, commissioned by UNITE and conducted by MORI.
See also reports in The Independent and Daily Telegraph, 21st January, 2004.
11. ‘Universities UK Student Debt Project’, for Universities UK and HEFCE by
Professor Claire Callender of South Bank University, January 2003.
12. Clare Callender : Postscript to Student Debt Report, 2003.
See also: ‘2002/03 Student income and expenditure survey,’ by
Callender and David Wilkinson of the Policy Studies Institute for the DFES.
13. ‘Losing Out? Socioeconomic disadvantage and experience in further and
higher education’, by Andy Furlong & & Alasdair Forsyth, the Joseph Rowntree
Foundation, May 2003.
14. ‘The Financial Returns to Undergraduates and Tuition Fees’: By Doctor Gavan
Conlon & Dr Arnaud Chevalier, Council for Industry and HE, November, 2002.
15. Report by D Heller of The Center for the Study of Higher Education at Penn
State University using data from the U.S. Dept of Education for 1998/99.
16. Universities’ own information.
17. ‘Does HECS deter? Factors affecting university participation by low SES
groups,’ by Les Andrews, Higher Education Division, Australia’s Dept of
Education, Training and Youth Affairs, August 1999.
18. ‘Income contingent financing of student charges for higher education:
assessing the Australian innovation,’ by Bruce Chapman and Chris Ryan,
Australian National University, May 2002.
19. ‘The access implications of income contingent charges for higher education:
lessons from Australia,’ by Bruce Chapman and Chris Ryan, Australian
National University, April 2003.
20. ‘Socioeconomic Background and Higher Education Participation : an analysis
of school students’ aspirations and expectations’. Richard James, April 2002
21. ‘AV-CC : Paying their way : A Survey of Australian Undergraduate University
Student Finances 2000’ by Michael Long, Martin Hayden, October 2001
Appendix I

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